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Lookup table
In computer science, a lookup table is an array that replaces runtime computation with a simpler array indexing operation. The savings in terms of processing time can be significant, since retrieving a value from memory is often faster than undergoing an "expensive" computation or input/output operation. The tables may be precalculated and stored in static program storage, calculated (or "pre-fetched") as part of a program's initialization phase (memoization), or even stored in hardware in application-specific platforms. Lookup tables are also used extensively to validate input values by matching against a list of valid (or invalid) items in an array and, in some programming languages, may include pointer functions (or offsets to labels) to process the matching input. FPGAs also make extensive use of reconfigurable, hardware-implemented, lookup tables to provide programmable hardware functionality.
In ancient (499 AD) India, Aryabhata created one of the first sine tables, which he encoded in a Sanskrit-letter-based number system. In 493 AD, Victorius of Aquitaine wrote a 98-column multiplication table which gave (in Roman numerals) the product of every number from 2 to 50 times and the rows were "a list of numbers starting with one thousand, descending by hundreds to one hundred, then descending by tens to ten, then by ones to one, and then the fractions down to 1/144" Modern school children are often taught to memorize "times tables" to avoid calculations of the most commonly used numbers (up to 9 x 9 or 12 x 12).
Early in the history of computers, input/output operations were particularly slow even in comparison to processor speeds of the time. It made sense to reduce expensive read operations by a form of manual caching by creating either static lookup tables (embedded in the program) or dynamic prefetched arrays to contain only the most commonly occurring data items. Despite the introduction of systemwide caching that now automates this process, application level lookup tables can still improve performance for data items that rarely, if ever, change.
This is known as a linear search or brute-force search, each element being checked for equality in turn and the associated value, if any, used as a result of the search. This is often the slowest search method unless frequently occurring values occur early in the list. For a one-dimensional array or linked list, the lookup is usually to determine whether or not there is a match with an 'input' data value.
For a trivial hash function lookup, the unsigned raw data value is used directly as an index to a one-dimensional table to extract a result. For small ranges, this can be amongst the fastest lookup, even exceeding binary search speed with zero branches and executing in constant time.
This apparently simple algorithm can take potentially hundreds of cycles even on a modern architecture, because it makes many branches in the loop - and branching is slow. This can be ameliorated using loop unrolling and some other compiler optimizations. There is however a simple and much faster algorithmic solution - using a trivial hash function table lookup.
The above source can be improved easily, (avoiding AND'ing, and shifting) by 'recasting' 'x' as a 4 byte unsigned char array and, preferably, coded in-line as a single statement instead of being a function. Note that even this simple algorithm can be too slow now, because the original code might run faster from the cache of modern processors, and (large) lookup tables do not fit well in caches and can cause a slower access to memory (in addition, in the above example, it requires computing addresses within a table, to perform the four lookups needed).
A classic example of reducing run-time computations using lookup tables is to obtain the result of a trigonometry calculation, such as the sine of a value. Calculating trigonometric functions can substantially slow a computing application. The same application can finish much sooner when it first precalculates the sine of a number of values, for example for each whole number of degrees (The table can be defined as static variables at compile time, reducing repeated run time costs). When the program requires the sine of a value, it can use the lookup table to retrieve the closest sine value from a memory address, and may also take the step of interpolating to the sine of the desired value, instead of calculating by mathematical formula. Lookup tables are thus used by mathematics co-processors in computer systems. An error in a lookup table was responsible for Intel's infamous floating-point divide bug.
As mentioned, there are intermediate solutions that use tables in combination with a small amount of computation, often using interpolation. Pre-calculation combined with interpolation can produce higher accuracy for values that fall between two precomputed values. This technique requires slightly more time to be performed but can greatly enhance accuracy in applications that require the higher accuracy. Depending on the values being precomputed, pre-computation with interpolation can also be used to shrink the lookup table size while maintaining accuracy.
There are two fundamental limitations on when it is possible to construct a lookup table for a required operation. One is the amount of memory that is available: one cannot construct a lookup table larger than the space available for the table, although it is possible to construct disk-based lookup tables at the expense of lookup time. The other is the time required to compute the table values in the first instance; although this usually needs to be done only once, if it takes a prohibitively long time, it may make the use of a lookup table an inappropriate solution. As previously stated however, tables can be statically defined in many cases.